Does Your Child Grind His or Her Teeth at Night

Bruxism, or the grinding of teeth, is remarkably common in children and adults. For some children, this tooth grinding may be limited to daytime hours, but nighttime grinding (during sleep) may be most prevalent. Bruxism can lead to a wide range of dental problems, depending on the frequency of the behavior, the intensity of the grinding, and the underlying causes of the grinding. 

A wide range of psychological, physiological, and physical factors may lead children to grind their teeth. Jaw misalignment (bad bite), stress, a side effect of certain medications and even traumatic brain injury can contribute to bruxism. 

What are some symptoms of bruxism? 

In general, parents can usually hear intense grinding, especially when it occurs at nighttime. Subtle daytime jaw clenching and grinding, however, can be difficult to pinpoint. Often, general symptoms can provide clues as to whether or not the child is grinding: 

  • Frequent complaints of headache.
  • Injured teeth and gums.
  • Loud grinding or clicking sounds.
  • Rhythmic tightening or clenching of the jaw muscles.
  • Unusual complaints about painful jaw muscles, especially in the morning.
  • Unusual tooth sensitivity to hot and cold foods.

How can bruxism damage my child’s teeth?
Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the upper jaw against the lower jaw. Especially in cases where there is vigorous grinding, the child may experience moderate to severe jaw discomfort, headaches, and ear pain. Even if the child is completely unaware of nighttime grinding (and parents are unable to hear it), the condition of the teeth provides a dentist with important clues.

First, chronic grinders usually show an excessive wear pattern on the teeth. If jaw misalignment is the cause, tooth enamel may be worn down in specific areas. In addition, children who grind are more susceptible to chipped teeth, facial pain, gum injury, and temperature sensitivity. In extreme cases, frequent, harsh grinding can lead to the early onset of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD).

What causes bruxism?
Bruxism can be caused by several different factors. Most commonly, “bad bite” or jaw misalignment is the cause of the grinding. Dentists have also noticed that children tend to grind more frequently in

response to life stressors. If the child is going through a particularly stressful exam period or is relocating to a new school for example, nighttime bruxism may either begin or intensify. 

Children with certain developmental disorders and brain injuries may be at particular risk for grinding. In such cases, a dentist may suggest botulism injections to calm the facial muscles, or provide a protective nighttime mouthpiece. If the onset of bruxism is sudden, current medications need to be evaluated. 

How is bruxism treated? 

Bruxism usually ceases by the age of thirteen in the majority of children. In the meantime however, your dentist will continually monitor its effect on the child’s teeth and may provide an interventional strategy. 

In general, the cause of the grinding dictates the treatment approach. If the child’s teeth are badly misaligned, your dentist may take steps to correct this. Some of the available options include: altering the biting surface of teeth with restorations or appliance therapy. 

If grinding seems to be exacerbated by stress, your dentist may recommend relaxation classes, professional therapy, or special exercises. The child’s pediatrician may also provide muscle relaxants to alleviate jaw clenching and reduce jaw spasms. 

In cases where young teeth are sustaining significant damage, your dentist may suggest a specialized nighttime dental appliance such as a nighttime mouth guard. Mouth guards stop tooth surfaces from grinding against each other, and look similar to a mouthpiece a person might wear during sports. Bite splints or bite plates fulfill the same function and are almost universally successful in preventing grinding damage. 

If you have questions or concerns about bruxism or grinding teeth, please contact our office.